Hydroxychloroquine sulphate and chloroquine phosphate drugs
They effectively neutralize the drug via a mechanism that drains chloroquine away from the digestive vacuole. Chloroquine-resistant cells efflux chloroquine at 40 times the rate of chloroquine-sensitive cells; the related mutations trace back to transmembrane proteins of the digestive vacuole, including sets of critical mutations in the P. The mutated protein, but not the wild-type transporter, transports chloroquine when expressed in Xenopus oocytes frog's eggs and is thought to mediate chloroquine leak from its site of action in the digestive vacuole.
Recently, an altered chloroquine-transporter protein CG2 of the parasite has been related to chloroquine resistance, but other mechanisms of resistance also appear to be involved. Other agents which have been shown to reverse chloroquine resistance in malaria are chlorpheniramine , gefitinib , imatinib , tariquidar and zosuquidar.
Chloroquine has antiviral effects. The virus is therefore unable to release its genetic material into the cell and replicate.
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Chloroquine also seems to act as a zinc ionophore, that allows extracellular zinc to enter the cell and inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Chloroquine inhibits thiamine uptake. Against rheumatoid arthritis , it operates by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, phospholipase A2 , antigen presentation in dendritic cells, release of enzymes from lysosomes , release of reactive oxygen species from macrophages , and production of IL In Peru the indigenous people extracted the bark of the Cinchona plant  trees and used the extract Chinchona officinalis to fight chills and fever in the seventeenth century.
In this herbal medicine was introduced in Europe, where it was given the same use and also began to be used against malaria. Chloroquine was discovered in , by Hans Andersag and coworkers at the Bayer laboratories, who named it "Resochin". During World War II, United States government-sponsored clinical trials for antimalarial drug development showed unequivocally that chloroquine has a significant therapeutic value as an antimalarial drug.
It was introduced into clinical practice in for the prophylactic treatment of malaria. Chloroquine comes in tablet form as the phosphate, sulfate, and hydrochloride salts. Chloroquine is usually dispensed as the phosphate.
Chloroquine is used to control the aquarium fish parasite Amyloodinium ocellatum. In late January during the —20 coronavirus outbreak , Chinese medical researchers stated that exploratory research into chloroquine seemed to have "fairly good inhibitory effects" on the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
On 24 March , NBC News reported  a fatality due to misuse of a chloroquine product used to control fish parasites. Chloroquine was being considered in , in pre-clinical models as a potential agent against chikungunya fever. The radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing properties of chloroquine are beginning to be exploited in anticancer strategies in humans. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Medication used to treat malaria. IUPAC name. Interactive image. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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